Important publications of Cryophysiology Department
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  1. Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S., Lomakin I.I., Belostotskiy A.V. Neurophysilogical processes of cooled brain / Kiev, Naukova Dumka, 1992. - 208 p.
  2. Marchenko V.S., Babijchuk G.A., Lomako V.V., Shilo A.V., Lomakin I.I., Marchenko L.N. General approach to the problem of increasing the permeability of blood-brain barrier and organism cold resistance // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1994. - 1. - P. 24-32. (The role of functional state of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the structure of thermoregulatory reactions of cooled brain are considered. Resonance frequencies of rhythmic cold application capable of increasing the BBB upon artificial cooling have been determined. Basing on the analysis of literature data and own results, a new approach is substantiated to the problem of increasing the organism resistance to cold, and conceptions are developed on the phenomenon of the "awaiting reaction" of hypothermia that at the neurochemical level consists in the formation of complex conditions proving for the maintenance of norepinephrine at a nearly normal level in 24 h after cooling in hypothalamus neurons. Structure-functional mechanism of the formation of engrams of the thermoregulatory memory are discussed.)
  3. Lomako V.V., Babijchuk G.A., V.S. Marchenko, Shilo A.V., Lomakin I.I. Noradrenergic processes in rat hypothalamus after repeated craniocerebral hypothermia // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1994. - 4. - P. 11-17. (The effect of repeated craniocerebral hypothermia (CCH) treatments (rectal temperature are 32 and 350C) on the content of norepinephrine (NE) in the tissue of hypothalamus, adrenal glands and blood, processes of secretion and permeability of 3H-NE through the hypothalamic blood-brain barrier (BBB) in intact rats and rats with the reserpine-induced depletion of catecholamine stores have been studied. The analysis of the experimental data has shown that CCH of 320C reduces the level of NE in the hypothalamic tissue, which is compensated by an increased BBB permeability to this neurotransmitter, thus facilitating the maintenance of the NE secretion at the original level.)
  4. Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S., Pastukhov Y.F., Shilo A.V., Lomako V.V., Lomakin I.I., Marchenko L.N. On the mechanism of blood-brain barrier permeability regulation of the cooled brain. Report 1. // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1995. - 1. - P. 3-10. (There were studied the effects of craniocerebral hypothermia and intraperitoneal administration of bombezin on permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) of various structures of rats brain (anterior and posterior regions of hypothalamus, neocortex, thalamus, hyppocamp) to 3H-norepinephrine, 3H-epinephrine, 3H-acetylcholine. Possible mechanism of the alterations in the BBB permeability for biologically active substances are speculated upon.)
  5. Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S., Shilo A. V., Lomako V.V., Lomakin I.I., Marchenko L.N. On the mechanisms of regulation of BBB permeability of the cooled brain. Report 2. Rhythmic cold exposures increase BBB permeability to thermoregulatory neuromediators // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1995. - 2. - P. 3-9. (The interrelation between the changes in bioelectrical activity in the second range of frequencies and the deviation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to catecholamines has been studied. Rhythmic cold exposure with frequency of 0.1 Hz (0.1 CCH) was reported to result in a greater alteration in BBB permeability as compared with CCH the level of 320C. The idea on the BBB being a structure-functional basis of a supralow controlling system of the organism is substantiated.)
  6. Marchenko V.S., Babijchuk G.A., Shilo A.V., Lomako V.V., Altueva E.V., Marchenko L.N. On the mechanism of blood-brain barrier permeability regulation of the cooled brain. Report 3. Is nitric oxide one of the triggers of BBB permeability in the structure of the supraslow controlling system of the brain? // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1995. - 3. - P. 10-19. (We hypothesize on the thermoregulatory function of the BBB, which may be a structure-functional basis of the supraslow controlling system of the organism. Cold exposures with a feedback by a second' rhythm of the neocortex, while increasing a spectral power of the seconds' bioelectrical rhythm, result in a considerable increase in the BBB permeability. The electronograms demonstrate that after cold exposure the synaptic apparatus is in a state of tension, a receptor transcytosis is activated in the endothelium of microvessels, and the coated vesicles are appeared. A rise in the BBB permeability, apparently, is due to the event of a long-term potentiation in the brain lymbic system. The content of cyclic nucleoside monophosphates is increased, and NO-synthase is activated. Apparently, NO may act as a regulator of the BBB permeability during hypothermia.)
  7. Marchenko L.N., Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S., Lomako V.V., Shilo A.V., Altueva E.V. On the mechanism of blood-brain barrier permeability regulation of the cooled brain. Report 4. Ultrastructural peculiarities and functional activity of blood-brain barrier during rhythmic cold exposure // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1995. 4. - P. 10-19. (The ultrastructure of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), synaptic apparatus, secretion, reception and permeability of BBB to monoamines of rats during hypothermic treatment have been investigated. It is shown that rhythmic cold exposures increase by 3-4-fold the BBB permeability to 3H-norepinephrine, but not to 3H-serotonine. The electronograms indicate that following cold exposures the synaptic apparatus is in the state of tension, in the endothelium of the microvessels the clatrine vesicles are appeared, and the processes of receptor transcytosis are activated. The neurotransmitter processes that determine the BBB permeability may be a trigger of neurophysiological mechanism of changes in the central thermal regulation during hypothermic treatment.)
  8. Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S., Marchenko L.N., Altueva E.V. On the mechanism of blood-brain barrier permeability regulation of the cooled brain. Report 5. The blood-brain barrier as a structure-functional link in the central neurotransmitting mechanisms of thermal regulation // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1996. - N1. - P. 22-28. (The authors studied the structure-functional mechanisms of increasing the BBB permeability to the thermoregulatory neurotransmitters. Subsequently they speculate on the knowledge on the role of BBB in the central thermoregulatory processes which provide for temperature homeostasis, and substantiate a hypothesis on the involvement of the secondary messengers and cytoskeletal structures in the selective transport of norepinephrine and acetylcholine from blood into the brain during rhythmic cold exposures.)
  9. Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S. Trigger function of the blood-brain barrier in the neurotransmitting mechanisms of the thermal regulation during hypothermia and hibernation // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1997. - N 1-2. - P.69-74. (The authors give grounds for the necessity to elaborate a scientific concept of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) of the cooled brain. They propose to consider the BBB as a structure-functional basis of the supraslow controlling system of the organism, triggering link of the central mechanisms of thermal regulation during hypothermia and hibernation.)
  10. Marchenko V.S. Neuronal gas (NO and CO) in the mechanisms of permeability of the blood-brain barrier of the cooled brain // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1997. - N3. - P.57-59. (NO and CO may be the neuronal intermediaries for the slow controlling system of the brain, which are involved into the processes of regulation during the action of extreme and systemically applied stimulators; the BBB serves as its structure-functional basis. The author believe that under these conditions CO maintains the links between the BBB and the monoxygenative system, while NO is responsible for the ties with the immune system, thus uniting three protective systems of the organism into one, which may be conditionally termed as existoencephalic system.)
  11. Marchenko V.S. Existoencephalic mechanisms of increasing the resistance of the organism to hypo- and hyperthermia // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1998. - N1. - P 62-63. (The experimental results obtained give certain grounds to conclude that modeling of the state of the increased activity of the existoencephalic system by rhythmic hypothermia with a frequency, close to natural seconds biorhythms, accelerates physiological adaptation of animals, which results in a rise in resistance to hypo- and hyperthermia.)
  12. Marchenko V.S., Babijchuk V.G., Lomakin I.I., Shilo A.V., Lomako V.V. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier to cardiotropic drugs during craniocerebral hypothermia // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1998. - 2. - P. 42-45. (It is shown that during craniocerebral hypothermia the interrelations of the central and autonomous circuits of heart activity regulation may be altered significantly. Because of that the probability of paradoxical responses of the organism to cardiotropic drugs application are increased. A change of sign of the chronotropic effect of catecholamines and acetylcholine during hypothermia is mainly due to a rise in the level of blood-brain barrier permeability of the cold brain. The registered specific features should be definitely taken into account in practical medicine when performing hypothermic therapy.)
  13. Vorobyov S.A., Shilo A.V. The recurrent method of normalized range for definition of fractal properties of casual sequences and its application to analysis of electroencephalogram // Radioelektronika i informatika. - 1998. - 3. - P. 165-168. (It is emphasized the special importance of the analysis of casual sequences on small temporal gaps, characteristic for final functional condition of systems. The recurrent method of a normalized range for the definition of fractality of an arbitrary casual sequence is offered. With the help of developed method the analysis electroencephalograms of laboratory animal (Wistar rats) is carried out.)
  14. Vorobyov S.A., Mogilevskiy A.Ya., Ponomarenko S.A., Shilo A.V. The approaches to decision of short series problem in analysis of electroencephalogram and neuronal activity for definition of its fractal properties // Radioelektronika i informatika. - 1999. - 1. - P. 104-109. (The approach to decision of short series problem in analysis of electroencephalogram for definition of its fractal properties is proposed and described. The conclusions defined from the using of proposed approach to analysis of Lymnaea stagnalis neurons activity experimental data for different regimes of intracellular stimulation are described too.)
  15. Marchenko V.S. Neuronal gas-anticonvulsant in mechanisms of BBB permeability of cooled brain // Problems of Cryobiology. - 1999. - N2. - P. 89-91. (The results of investigations in the whole correspond to recently being formed conception on triggering role of generation of nitrogen and carbon monooxides at hypo- and hypermetabolic states of an organism.)
  16. Lomako V.V., Shulyak L.I. Effect of hypothermic storage on the viability on the fragments of rat embryonic cortex and hypothalamus // Problems of Cryobiology. - 2000. - 1. - P. 93-94. (According to the level of protein and DNA synthesis the fragments of embrional rats cortex and hypothalamus after hypothermal storage (4 0C) (HS) remain viable up to 12 days. Depending on the period of HS it is possible to obtain nervous tissue embrional fragments with the different level of functional activity and use them at transplantation for certain effect achievement.)
  17. Babijchuk G.A., Lomako V.V., Shulyak L.I., Shilo A.V., Lomakin I.I. Functional state of embryonic nerve tissue fragments after hypothermal storage and transplantation to a recipient // Problems of Cryobiology. - 2000. - 2. - P. 40-47. (The method of hypothermal storage (HS) of embryonic nerve tissue (ENT), providing a high retention percentage (90%) and lost functions recovery after transplantation to a recipient, was elaborated. We have established an optimal term of ENT HS, whose biological integrity was determined according to the capability to synthesise protein and DNA, that can serve as an adequate method of viability in vitro preliminary estimation of ENT fragments. The possibility of synaptic process recovery, in particular a highly affinic uptake of neuromediators (norepinephrine, serotonine, D-asparaginic acid) by a transplant of both native and ENT after hypothermal storage was demonstrated).
  18. Marchenko V.S., Polischuk L.V., Babijchuk V.G. Action of rhythmic cooling on permeability of blood-brain barrier to exogenous norepinephrine // Problems of Cryobiology. - 2000. - N1. - P. 36-40. (The authors studied the action of rhythmic cold exposures with the frequencies of 0,1-0,2 Hz on the permeability of the BBB to norepinephrine (NE). They found that the BBB as a structure-function basis of the slow controlling system of the brain is characterized by resonance events in the seconds' range of frequencies. A rise in the BBB permeability results in changing the sign of the NE chronotropic effect in a manner synchronous to the frequency of the cold exposure.)
  19. Marchenko V.S., Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko L.N., Polischuk L.V. To the conception of existo-encephalic system of cooled brain. Part 3. Neuronal gases (NO, CO) as neurotransmitter system of homeostasis "kindling" // Problems of cryobiology. - 2000. - N4. - P.27-36. (It has been shown, that NO and CO as the factors of neuronal plasticity mediate BBB thermoregulatory functions by changing its permeability to thermo-competent neuromediators. Hypothermia results in a cascade switching of various isoforms of NO-synthase, making the conditions for an increased BBB permeability. Under a critical augmentation of NO content receptor fields in the neurotransmitter mechanisms of BBB opening were "flooded", an urgent recovery of its resistance occurred. CO is so-called switch of sympathetic and parasympathetic flux, if NO is the trigger of BBB permeability for biogenic amines. Under these conditions CO binds BBB with mono-oxygenase system, and NO with an immune one, combining three protective systems in one, which conditionally can be named as existo-encephalic system (EES).)
  20. Marchenko V.S., Babijchuk G.A., Polischuk L.V. Marchenko L.N. From fractal dimensions of BBB of cooled brain to functional geometry of physiological systems of an organism // Problems of Cryobiology. - 2001. - N3. - P.123. (Existing neurotransmitter conceptions of central thermoregulation explain quite convincingly the most intimate neurophysiological processes. However in any model till now the activity and ultrastructural state of BBB was taken into consideration, there was no aim to find the cause, but not mechanism of neuromediator action, that is to answer the question "why?", but not "how?". Besides, why norepinephrine (NE) takes part in the support of current thermoregulation processes, meanwhile acetylcholine (ACh) triggers homeostatic mechanisms of thermogenesis, but not vice versa? It is proposed to consider this problem in the plane: order-chaos, where it would be expedient to use fractal approach (estimation of fraction dimensions). Fractal analysis of experimental massive as for the effect of cooling on neurophysiological processes, accumulated by us during recent decade has shown, that: a) structure and dynamics of NE-ergic processes (secretion and capturing of NE, ultrastructural distribution of adenylate cyclase and the level of cAMPh, kinetics of NE-receptors, ultrastructure of NE-vesicles of synapses) are scale-invariant, have fractal measuring units -1.3, Hirst index H>0.5 (these factors are persistent, so they provide supporting tendencies in central mechanisms of thermoregulation); b) cholinergic processes (release of ACh, calcium exchange, cGMP, ultrastructure of ACh of vesicles of synapses), scale-invariant, fractal dimensions -1.7 (H<0.5), that is these processes are anti-persistent. Thus it is clear, why NE-ergic processes support dominating thermoregulatory tendency, and ACh-ergic contribute to the change in heat production and convective heat. But why the geometry of NE functioning of NE and ACh is fractally opposite? By radioisotopic, electrophysiologic and electrone histochemical methods a functional state of BBB of rats under trigger hypothermia was studied. It has been shown BBB is of fractal origin, which is initiated by the processes of the type of long-term potentiation, that is supported by "neuronal gas" (NO, CO). These monoxides stipulate reverberation of BBB permeability, aggregation of pinocytosic vesicles, hydration-dehydration and others fractal phenomena in endothelio-cytes of brain capillaries and their neuroglial environment. So, the penetration of bioactive substances through BBB (afterwards NO and CO) in the first approximation is the movement of gas along labyrinth in porous medium, which can be described in terms of percolation theory. Threshold of permeability can be associated with the one of leaking, its rising under hypothermia is characterized by relatively narrow maximums (2-3 min) during which systemic introduction of vegetotropic substances gives central effect. Macrogeometry near the threshold of percolation has fractal dimensions. Directly before a sharp increase in BBB permeability a special (fractal) structural and functional state of brain is also created. BBB permeability increase when geometry of endotheliocytes, synapses, bioelectric and neurochemical activity synchronizes. These structures and processes gain similar dimensions (-1.7 or -1.3) at the reduction of BBB down to ACh or NE, correspondingly. According to our data the relationship NE and BBB provides NO, and ACh - CO, then significant difference in the duration of existing of these monoxides can stipulate the extent of "foaming" of space-time patterns of brain, hypo- or hyperactivity of an organism. Besides, using fractal regimens of hypothermia it is possible to reduce epilepto-formic manifestations and even make closer electrogenesis of surviving slices of rats' brain to the one of hibernators (by the criterion of ultraslow bioelectric activity). Thus it can be supposed that this or another role of biogenic amines in central thermoregulation is related to BBB permeability, that is determined not only by neurotransmitter mechanisms, but also physical properties of substrate of cooled brain (the processes of percolation type with displacement, which naturally generate fractal structures).)
  21. Marchenko V.S., Babijchuk V.G. Cardioregulatory function of blood-brain barrier under resonance hypothermia // Problems of Cryobiology. - 2001. - N4. - P.17-29. (The authors conclude on the expediency of integration into modern concepts of general adaptation syndrome the notions about trigger possibilities of neurotransmitter mechanisms of blood brain barrier (BBB), because on the level of its permeability depend adaptive reactions of cardio-vascular and central nervous system on stressors of different modality and intensity. Application of resonance hypothermia (RH) revealed the range of adaptation capabilities of BBB of old animals. Central nerve system of two-years' rats lose the plasticity, does not support an upper range of effects in second rhythm, so for reducing both BBB resistance and hypertension the most efficient is RH with 0.05 Hz frequency.)
  22. Samokhina L.M., Babijchuk V.G., Lomako V.V., Poznakhareva I.A., Marchenko V.S., Mamontov V.V. The proteinase-proteinases inhibitor system in old rats with stimulated hypertension under rhythmic cold effect // The Ukrainian Therapeutic Journal - 2001. - 4 - P. 43-46. (The proteinases, nonthrypsin like proteinases (NTLP), a1-inhibitor of proteinases (a1-IP), a2-macroglobulin (a2-MG) activities were studied in serum, hypothalamus tissue, brain cortex (BC), lungs, heart, liver, kidneys in old rats with a simulated hypertension (SH) after rhythmical cold effect (RCE) with frequency 0,1 Hz. It was marked, that changes in the proteinase-inhibitor proteinases system, appearing as a result SH, are less expressed, than at RCE and revealed in rising of activity of proteinases and NTLP on a background of a a1-IP decrease, that is characteristic for development of stressful response. The realisation of RCE to rat with SH results in normalization of arterial pressure and has less significant effect that RCE in the control. For complete normalisation of the violations caused by SH one should be use more mild or balanced cold influences.)
  23. Mogilevsky A.Y., Shilo A.V., Panchekha A.P., Sorokina E.A. Chaotic nonlinear dynamics of prestimulus EEG and structure of auditory evoked potentials // Journal of Higher Nervous Activity. - 2002. - V. 52 , 1. - P. 36-46. (The dynamic pattern of a prestimulus EEG was studied by fractal analysis technique. The character of this pattern was shown affect the structure of cortex auditory evoked potentials (EP). A monoperiodic pattern in the control frequency band was accompanied by a formation of several new attractors with low dimensionality attributed to simultaneous functioning of several weakly connected dynamic systems with an indefinite trend of leading process. During development of multiperiodic processes in EEG segments, the fractal analysis revealed a tendency for a formation of a single complex dynamic system with high dimensionality of the attractor. Characteristic changes in parameters of the primary and middle-latency EP components, their correlation, and factor models are related with the character of nonlinear patterns. Analysis of variance revealed the most effective role of pattern changes in the EEG alpha control band. The structure of combination of parameters of the EP primary components into connected complexes depend on the nonlinear prestimulus EEG patterns. The above predictors determine differently directed and different pronounced changes in the parameters of the middle-latency positive waves.)
  24. Lomako V.V., Samokhina L.M., Babijchuk G.A., Marchenko V.S., Poznakhareva I.A., Shilo A.V., Mamontov V.V., Lomakin I.I. The old rat`s proteinase-inhibitor of proteinases system with a stimulated hypotension after cord blood and rhythmical cold effect combined application // Problems of Cryobiology. - 2002. - 2. - P. 70-75. (Total activity of proteinases (TAP), those of non-trypsin-like proteinases (NTLP), a1-inhibitor of proteinases ( a1-IP), a2-macroglobulin (a2-MG) in serum, hypothalamus tissue, brain cortex (BC), lungs, heart, liver, kidneys in old rats with a simulated hypertension (SH) after combined application of cord blood preparation (CB) and rhythmical cold effect (RCE), were investigated. Considerable influence of CB+RCE combined effect is manifested in an increase in a2-MG level in heart, less visible influence on the balance in the proteinase a1-IP system in comparison with RCE, that is traced in the TAP dynamics in lungs and kidneys, and a1-IP in BC and in kidneys as well. The increased a1-IP level in liver contributes to the surplus proteolysis compensation. Generally, the studied system approaches the level of functioning, comparable with young organism, thereat a combined effect more efficiently corrects the SH-caused impairments, in comparison with RCE and CB effect separately.)
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