Sleep in Antarctica: from the Sleep Disturbances Towards All the Challenges
Keywords:low temperatures, Antarctica, sleep, sleep disturbances, circadian rhythm
From the first expeditions, adaptation to the harsh environment of Antarctica, the expeditionists complained of a trouble sleeping. During a long stay on the continent, the polar explorers are exposed to a large number of extreme environmental factors both at the station and outside it, but the main physical factors of sleep disturbances are considered to be the peculiarities of light and photoperiod. Recently, more attention has been paid to clarifying the role of psychological adaptation to the Antarctica conditions, regarding the living in a small group and confined space. Existing methods to prevent the sleep disorders, first of all, comprise the manipulating with light parameters, activity and rest schedules. A thorough preliminary selection of expeditionists to establish the necessary psychological climate, thinking about gender and multicultural characteristics of adaptation can also be considered with the perspective of preventive measures. At the same time, little attention is paid to the investigation of the role of 'non-core' factors (chronotype, personality traits and features of personal adaptation to the extreme environment of Antarctica), as well as forced contact with cold, affecting sleep.
Probl Cryobiol Cryomed 2020; 30(1): 3-23
Agnew HW, Webb WB, Williams RL. The first night effect: an EEG study of sleep. Psychophysiology. 1966; 2:263-6. CrossRef
AktaÅŸ Åž, MirasouÄ£lu B, Yumbul AS, Ã‡otuk B. Medical consultancy of the first Turkish Antarctic research expedition 2016. Ä°stanbul TÄ±p FakÃ¼ltesi Dergisi Cilt. 2016; 79(4): 153-6. CrossRef
Anderson PJ, Wiste HJ, Ostby SA, et al. Sleep disordered breathing and acute mountain sickness in workers rapidly transported to the South Pole (2835 m). Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2015; 210:38-43. CrossRef
Arendt J, Middleton B. Human seasonal and circadian studies in Antarctica (Halley, 75Â°S). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2018; 258: 250-8. CrossRef
Arendt J. Biological rhythms during residence in Polar Regions. Chronobiology International. 2012; 29(4): 379-94. CrossRef
Bhargava R, Mukerji S, Sachdeva U. Psychological impact of the Antarctic winter on Indian expeditioners. Environ Behav. 2000; 32(1): 111-27. CrossRef
Bhattacharyya M, Majumdar D. Melatonin rhythm and sleep pattern in Antarctica. [Internet]. In: Twenty Fourth Indian Antarctic Expedition 2003-2005. Ministry of Earth Sciences, Technical Publication – 22. p. 327-37. [cited 2019 Feb 3]. Available from: http://126.96.36.199:8080/dspace/bitstream/123456789/965/1/RRChapter-23A.pdf
Bhattacharyya M, Pal MS, Sharma YK, Majumdar D. Changes in sleep patterns during prolonged stays in Antarctica. Int J Biometeorol. 2008; 52(8): 869-79. CrossRef
BorbÃ©ly AA, Daan S, Wirz-Justice A, Deboer T. The two-process model of sleep regulation: a reappraisal. J Sleep Res. 2016; 25(2): 131-43. CrossRef
Brazaitis M, Eimantas N, Daniuseviciute L, et al. Two Strategies for Response to 14 oC Cold-Water Immersion: Is there a Difference in the Response of Motor, Cognitive, Immune and Stress Markers? PLoS One [Internet]. 2014 Oct 2 [cited 2019 Feb 09]; 9(10): e109020. Available from: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/ journal.pone.0109020 CrossRef
Buguet A, Rivolier J, Jouvet M. Human sleep patterns in Antarctica. Sleep. 1987; 10(4): 374-82. CrossRef
Cerri M, Tinganelli W, Negrini M, et al. Hibernation for space travel: Impact on radioprotection. Life Sci Space Res. 2016; 11: 1-9. CrossRef
Chen N, Wu Q, Xiong Y, et al. Circadian rhythm and sleep during prolonged antarctic residence at chinese Zhongshan station. Wilderness Environ Med. 2016; 27(4): 458-67. CrossRef
Collet G, Mairesse O, Cortoos A, et al. Altitude and seasonality impact on sleep in Antarctica. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015; 86(4):392-6. CrossRef
Cook FA. Through the first Antarctic night. 1898-1899. A narrative of the voyage of the "Belgica" among newly discovered lands and over unknown sea about the South Pole. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company; 1909. 478 p.
Corbett RW, Middleton B, Arendt J. An hour of bright white light in the early morning improves performance and advances sleep and circadian phase during the Antarctic winter. Neurosci Lett. 2012; 525(2):146-51. CrossRef
Dijk DJ, Archer SN. Light, sleep, and circadian rhythms: together again. PLoS Biol [Internet]. 2009 Jun 23 [cited 2019 Feb 06]; 7(6): e1000145. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000145 CrossRef
Farrace S, Ferrara M, De Angelis C, et al. Reduced sympathetic outflow and adrenal secretory activity during a 40-day stay in the Antarctic. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003; 49(1):17-27. CrossRef
Fogel SM, Smith CT, Higginson CD, Beninger RJ. Different types of avoidance behavior rats post-training changes sleep. Physiology & Behavior. 2011; 102(2):170-4. CrossRef
Folgueira A, Simonelli G, Plano S, et al. Sleep, napping and alertness during an overwintering mission at Belgrano II Argentine Antarctic station. Scientific Reports [Internet]. 2019 Jul 26 [cited 28 Jul 2019]; 9:10875. Available from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-46900-7 CrossRef
Francis G, Bishop L, Luke C, et al. Sleep during the Antarctic winter: preliminary observations on changing the spectral composition of artificial light. J Sleep Res. 2008; 17(3):354-60. CrossRef
Gander PH, Macdonald JA, Montgomery JC, Paulin MG. Adaptation of sleep and circadian rhythms to the Antarctic summer: a question of zeitgeber strength. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1991; 62(11): 1019-25.
Goulet G, Mongrain V, Desrosiers C, et al. Daily light exposure in morning-type and evening-type individuals. J Biol Rhythms. 2007; 22(2): 151-8. CrossRef
Harinath K, Malhotra AS, Pal K, et al. Autonomic nervous system and adrenal responses to cold in man at Antarctica. Wilderness Environ Med. 2005; 16: 81-91. CrossRef
Harris A, Marquis P, Eriksen HR, et al. Diurnal rhythm in British Antarctic personnel. Rural Remote Health [Internet]. 2010 Jun18 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; 10(2): 1351. Available from: www.rrh.org.au/journal/article/1351
Juda M, Vetter C, Roenneberg T. Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers. J Biol Rhythms. 2013; 28(2): 141-51. CrossRef
Khandelwal SK, Bhatia A, Mishra AK. Psychological adaptation of Indian expeditioners during prolonged residence in Antarctica. Indian J Psychiatry. 2017; 59(3): 313-9. CrossRef
Kryger M, Roth T, Dement W, editors. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine, 5th edn. London: Elsevier Saunders; 2011. 1723 p.
Leach J. Psychological factors in exceptional, extreme and torturous environments. Extrem Physiol Med. 2016; 5(7): 1-15. CrossRef
LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB, Pasto L, Thompson M. Response to thermal stress and personality. Physiol Behav. 2003; 80(1): 69-74. CrossRef
LeBlanc J, Ducharme MB, Thompson M. Study on the correlation of the autonomic nervous system responses to a stressor of high discomfort with personality traits. Physiol Behav. 2004; 82(4): 647-52. CrossRef
LeBlanc J, Dulac S, CÃ´tÃ© J, Girard B. Autonomic nervous system and adaptation to cold in man. J Appl Physiol. 1975; 39(2): 181-6. CrossRef
Lowden A, Lemos NAM, GonÃ§alves BSB, et al. Delayed sleep in winter related to natural daylight exposure among arctic day workers. Clocks & Sleep. 2018;1(1): 105-16. CrossRef
Lutsenko DG, Danylenko KM, Shylo OV, et al. Two types of autonomic regulation of heart rhythm in human during the overwintering in the Antarctica. In: The natural environment of Antarctica: ecological problems and nature protection. Proc. of 3rd International scientific conference (Sept. 17-19, 2018, Minsk, Belarus). Minsk; 2018. p. 34-9.
Mairesse O, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Neu D, et al. Preparing for Mars: human sleep and performance during a 13 month stay in Antarctica. Sleep [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2019 Jan 20]; 42(1): zsy206 Available from: https://academic.oup.com/sleep/article/42/1/zsy206/5164099 CrossRef
MÃ¤kinen TM, MÃ¤ntysaari M, PÃ¤Ã¤kkÃ¶nen T, et al. Autonomic nervous function during whole-body cold exposure before and after cold acclimation. Aviat space environ med. 2008;79(9): 875-82. CrossRef
Malatesta M, Biggiogera M, Zancanaro C. Hypometabolic induced state: a potential tool in biomedicine and space exploration. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol. 2007; 6(1-3): 47-60. CrossRef
Moiseyenko E, Vysotskaya L, Pyshnov G. [Professiographic researces of winterers work at Antarctic station «Akademik Vernadsky»]. Actual Problems of Transport Medicine. 2008; (3):103-9. Ukrainian.
Moiseyenko YV, Sukhorukov VI, Pyshnov GYu, et al. Antarctica challenges the new horizons in predictive, preventive, personalized medicine: preliminary results and attractive hypotheses for multi-disciplinary prospective studies in the Ukrainian "Akademik Vernadsky" station. The EPMA Journal [Internet]. 2016 May 31 [cited 2018 Dec 20]; 7: 11. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13167-016-0060-8. CrossRef
Moiseyenko IeV. [Research of influencing of ecological factors of Antarctic on capacity of human for adaptation]. Fiziol Zh. 2012; 58(4): 35-43. Ukrainian. CrossRef
Mottram V, Middleton B, Williams P, Arendt J. The impact of bright artificial white and 'blue-enriched' light on sleep and circadian phase during the polar winter. J Sleep Res. 2011; 20(1, Pt 2): 154-61. CrossRef
Najjar RP, Wolf L, Taillard J, et al. Chronic artificial blue-enriched white light is an effective countermeasure to delayed circadian phase and neurobehavioral decrements. PLoS One [Internet]. 2014 Jul 29 [cited 2018 Dec 20]; 9(7): e102827. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102827 CrossRef
Natani K, Shurley JT, Pierce CM, Brooks RE. Long-term changes in sleep patterns in men on the South Polar Plateau. Arch Intern Med. 1970; 125(4): 655-9. CrossRef
Palinkas LA, Johnson JC, Boster JS, et al. Cross-cultural differences in psychosocial adaptation to isolated and confined environments. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2004; 75: 973-80.
Palinkas LA, Suedfeld P. Psychological effects of polar expeditions. Lancet. 2008; 371(9607): 153-63. CrossRef
Paterson RAH. Seasonal reduction of slow-wave sleep at an Antarctic coastal station. Lancet. 1975;305(7904):468-9. CrossRef
Pattyn N, Mairesse O, Cortoos A, et al. Sleep during an Antarctic summer expedition: new light on "polar insomnia". J Appl Physiol. 2017; 122(4): 788-94. CrossRef
Pattyn N, Van Puyvelde M, Fernandez-Tellez H, et al. From the midnight sun to the longest night: Sleep in Antarctica. Sleep Med Rev. 2018; 37: 159-72. CrossRef
Paul MA, Love RJ, Hawton A, et al. Light treatment improves sleep quality and negative affectiveness in high arctic residents during winter. Photochem Photobiol. 2015; 91(3): 567-73. CrossRef
Premkumar M, Sable T, Dhanwal D, Dewan R. Circadian levels of serum melatonin and cortisol in relation to changes in mood, sleep, and neurocognitive performance, spanning a year of residence in Antarctica. Neurosci J [Internet]. 2013 [cited 2018 Dec 20]; 2013: 254090. Available from: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/neuroscience/2013/254090/ CrossRef
Rissanen S, Rintamiiki H, Hassi J, et al. Individual difference in cold acclimatization of fingers. In: Lotens WA, Havenith G, editors. Proceedings of 5th Int. Conf. on Environmental Ergonomics, Maastricht, The Netherlands, Nov 2-6, 1992. Maastricht; 1992. p. 62-3.
Rush AJ, Gullion CM, Basco MR, et al. The inventory of depressive symptomatology (IDS): psychometric properties. Psychol Med. 1996; 26(3): 477-86. CrossRef
Sandal GM, van de Vijver FJR, Smith N. Psychological hibernation in Antarctica. Front Psychol [Internet]. 2018 Nov 20 [cited 2018 Dec 10]; 9:2235. Available from: https://www.frontiersin.org/ articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02235/full CrossRef
Shattock MJ, Tipton MJ. 'Autonomic Conflict': a different way to die during cold water immersion? J Physiol. 2012; 590(14): 3219-30. CrossRef
Shylo OV, Lutsenko DG, Danylenko KM, et al. [Methods of studying the dynamics of some sleep quality indexes in antarctic winterers.] Ukrainian Antarctic Journal. 2017; 16: 188-200. Russian CrossRef
Stadelmann K, Latshang TD, Tarokh L, et al. Sleep respiratory disturbances and arousals at moderate altitude have overlapping electroencephalogram spectral signatures. J Sleep Res. 2014; 23(4):463-8. CrossRef
Steinach M, Kohlberg E, Maggioni MA, et al. Sleep quality changes during overwintering at the German Antarctic stations Neumayer II and III: the gender factor. PLoS ONE. 2016 Feb 26 [cited 2018 Dec 20]; 11(2):e0150099. Available from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0150099 CrossRef
Takagi T. [Longitudinal study on circadian rhythms of plasma hormone levels during Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition]. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1986; 61(1): 121-33. Japanese.
Tellez HF, Mairesse O, Macdonald-Nethercott E, et al. Sleep-related periodic breathing does not acclimatize to chronic hypobaric hypoxia: a 1-year study at high altitude in Antarctica. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;190(1):114-6. CrossRef
Usui A, Obinata I, Ishizuka Y, et al. Seasonal changes in human sleep-wake rhythm in Antarctica and Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2000; 54(3):361-2. CrossRef
Van Someren EJ. Mechanisms and functions of coupling between sleep and temperature rhythms. Prog Brain Res. 2006; 153:309-24. CrossRef
Ventskovska OA, Shylo OV, Babiychuk GA. Changes of sleep after long-term and rhythmic cold exposures. Problems of Cryobiology. 2011; 21(3):251-62.
Vermeulen LP. Small-group behaviour in long-term isolation. South African Journal of Sociology. 1977; 15:35-40. CrossRef
Vitale JA, Bjoerkesett E, Campana A, et al. Chronotype and response to training during the polar night: a pilot study. Int J Circumpolar Health [Internet]. 2017 May 19 [cited 2018 Dec 20]; 76(1):1320919. Available from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/22423982.2017.1320919 CrossRef
Vyazovskiy VV, Walton ME, Peirson SN, Bannerman DM. Sleep homeostasis, habits and habituation. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017; 44:202-11. CrossRef
Weymouth W, Steel GD. Sleep patterns during an antarctic field expedition. Mil Med. 2013; 178(4): 438-44. CrossRef
Wood J, Hysong SJ, Lugg DJ, Harm DL. Is it really so bad? A comparison of positive and negative experiences in Antarctic winter stations. Environ Behav. 2000; 32(1): 84-110. CrossRef
Yoneyama S, Hashimoto S, Honma K. Seasonal changes of human circadian rhythms in Antarctica. Am J Physiol. 1999; 277(4): R1091-7. CrossRef
Zakharenko LP, Petrovskii DV, Putilov AA. Larks, owls, swifts, and woodcocks among fruit flies: differential responses of four heritable chronotypes to long and hot summer days. Nat Sci Sleep. 2018; 21(10): 181-91. CrossRef
Zimmer M, Cabral JCCR, Borges FC, et al. Psychological changes arising from an Antarctic stay: Systematic overview. Estudos de Psicologia. 2013; 30(3): 415-23. CrossRef
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Oleksandr Shylo , Dmytro Lutsenko , Olena L. Lutsenko , Georgiy Babiychuk , Yevgen Moiseyenko
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).