Dynamics of Freezing and Warming of Soft Tissues with Short-Term Effect on Skin with Cryoapplicator


  • Gennady O. Kovalov Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv
  • Eduard Yu. Gordiyenko B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv
  • Yulia V. Fomenko B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv
  • Galyna V. Shustakova B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkiv
  • Polina V.Kiporenko V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv
  • Oleksiy O. Olefirenko Kharkiv Clinical Hospital on Railway Transport №2 Branch of the Health Center of Ukrzaliznytsia Joint-Stock Company, Kharkiv




cryosurgery, skin, freezing, warming, dynamics of temperature fields, infrared thermography


The paper presents the analysis of possibilities and limitations of using the thermal imaging to monitor the dynamics of temperature field caused by a short-term cryoablation. It is shown that the method allows to remote and intraoperative control the dynamics of the freezing zone diameter as well as to estimate the current diameter of primary cryonecrosis zone. The diameter of primary cryonecrosis zone for this type of tissues reaches 13 mm, which makes it possible to destroy small morbid growth by low temperatures even with a short-term (30 s) cryoexposure. The using of this method to monitor the process of natural warming has shown the presence of long quasistable stage in dynamics of the freezing zone diameter with a slight change in the temperature field. This fact is likely due to structural changes in frozen tissues.


Probl Cryobiol Cryomed 2020; 30(4): 359–368


Abramovits W, Graham G, Har-Shai Ya, Strumia R. Dermatological cryosurgery and cryotherapy. London: Springer; 2016. 758 p. CrossRef

Cetingül MP, Herman C. A heat transfer model of skin tissue for the detection of lesions: sensitivity analysis. Phys Med Biol. 2010; 55(19): 5933-51. CrossRef

Cholewka A, Stanek A, Sieroń A, Drzazga Z. Thermography study of skin response due to whole-body cryotherapy. Skin Res Technol. 2012; 18(2): 180-7. CrossRef

Cohen EEW, Ahmed O, Kocherginsky M, et al. Study of functional infrared imaging for early detection of mucositis in locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. Oral Oncology. 2013; 49(10): 1025-31. CrossRef

Cruz GAS, Bertotti J, Marín J, et al. Dynamic infrared imaging of cutaneous melanoma and normal skin in patients treated With BNCT. Appl Radiat Isot. 2009; 67(7-8): S54-S58. CrossRef

Diakides NA, Bronzino JD. Medical infrared imaging. New York: CRC Press; 2007. 448 p. CrossRef

Gordiyenko EYu, Glushchuk NI, Pushkar YuYa, et al. A multi-element thermal imaging system based on an uncooled bolometric array. Instrum Exp Tech. 2012; 55(4): 494-7. CrossRef

Hamblin MR, Avci P, Gupta GK. Imaging in dermatology. London: Academic Press; 2016. 560 p. Infrared Camera Models: [Internet] [cited 2019 Nov 28]. Available from: https://www.infratec.eu/thermography/infrared-camera/ CrossRef

Maiwand M, Asimakopoulos G. Cryosurgery for lung cancer: clinical results and technical aspects. Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2004; 3(2): 143-50. CrossRef

Mala T, Samset E, Aurdal L, Soreide O. Magnetic resonance imaging-estimated three-dimensional temperature distribution in liver cryolesions: a study of cryolesion characteristics assumed necessary for tumor ablation. Cryobiology. 2001; 43(3): 268-75. CrossRef

Matos F, Neves EB, Norte M, et al. The use of thermal imaging to monitoring skin temperature during cryotherapy: a systematic review. Infrared Physics & Technology. 2015; 73: 194-203. CrossRef

Pasquali P. Cryosurgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2015. 315 p.

Pogrel MA, Yen CK, Taylor R. A study of infrared thermographic assessment of liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 1996; 81(4): 396-401. CrossRef

Rewcastle JC, Sandison GA, Hahn LJ, et al. A model for the time-dependent thermal distribution within an iceball surrounding a cryoprobe. Phys Med Biol. 1998; 43(12): 3519-34. CrossRef

Vellard M, Arfaoui A. Detection by infrared thermography of the eff ect of local cryotherapy exposure on thermal spreadin skin. J Imaging [Internet]. 2016 June 13 [cited 2019 Nov 20]; 2(2): 20. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2313-433X/2/2/20/htm CrossRef

Zhmakin AI. Physical aspects of cryobiology. Phys Usp. 2008; 51:231-55. CrossRef

Zhmakin AI. Fundamentals of cryobiology. Physical phenomena and mathematical models. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2009. 278 p. CrossRef

Zimmerman EE, Crawford P. Cutaneous cryosurgery. American Family Physician. 2012; 86(12):1118-24.




How to Cite

Kovalov , G., Gordiyenko , E., Fomenko , Y., Shustakova , G., Kiporenko , P., & Olefirenko , O. (2020). Dynamics of Freezing and Warming of Soft Tissues with Short-Term Effect on Skin with Cryoapplicator. Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, 30(4), 359–368. https://doi.org/10.15407/cryo30.04.359



Cryomedicine, Clinical and Experimental Transplantology