Department was founded in 1962 since the Institute establishment. Department is headed by Prof. Alla A. Tsutsayeva, MD, DSc (Med).
In the field of cryobiology there are carried-out fundamental investigations on the following scientific directions: deep cold anabiosis as the state of biological systems of different organisation levels, providing their safe storage during unlimited time period; study of induction and reparation mechanisms of non-lethal damages, occurring at the stages of transferring biological systems of different organisation level into the state of deep cold anabiosis, cryopreservation and anhydrobiosis (freeze-drying).
Fundamental problems of cryoimmunology are as follows: study of the mechanisms of immunogenity reduction in tissue transplants after cryopreservation and that of peculiarities of their interaction with a recipient's organism. Investigation of interaction mechanisms of nervous, endocrine, immune and hemopoietic systems at the stages of treatment of secondary immunodeficient states of irradiation, viral and other genesis. It was established that after leaving a deep cold anabiosis state there was a reversible inhibition of biosynthesis processes of protein, nucleic acids, bioenergy processes in biological objects. The cryostress-proteins family, different from the heat shock ones is synthesised in biological objects of various organisation levels. Under normotherapy conditions the synthesis of stress-proteins is induced under the hyperconcentrated saline effect, that confirms a leading role of concentrated salt gradients as a factor of biological object cryodamaging during cryopreservation. The cryostress-proteins play a leading role in non-lethal cryodamages reparation and their synthesis is stopped or reduced down to the norm after completing reparation processes. The reparative processes at early stages are energetically provided by those of anaerobic glycolysis. There was studied the character of a non-lethal damage manifestation of biological objects at cellular level, the leading causes of a decrease in tissue transplants' immunogenity after cryopreservation, the molecular mechanisms of reversible changes in immunoglobulins at cryopreservation stages and those of immunoglobulin interaction with cryoprotectants, as well as the cryopreserved immunoglobulins properties.
Applied problems of cryobiology consist in the elaboration of the cryopreservation technologies without washing-out and freeze-drying for biological objects of various organisation level and studying the properties of cryopreserved and frozen-dried biological objects. There were found out a reversible inhibition of proliferation and differentiation processes of cryopreserved hemopoietic cells, a reversible inhibition of processes of antibodies production by cryopreserved immune lymphocytes, a change in topography of receptors location on a surface of cryopreserved lymphocytes, a delay in response by cryopreserved lymphocytes to the effect of polyclonal mitogens, a reversible inhibition of antibodies production by hybridomas and a reversible interferon production by cryopreserved cultures of tissue cultures during three passages. A statistically significant increase in the enzymes and antibiotics synthesis by cryopreserved industrial microorganism strains was revealed.
There were elaborated the cryopreservation technologies without washing-out for hemopoietic cells of donor and cadaveric bone marrow, lymphocytes.
We have created an original preparation "Cryocell-Hemocord", that is the suspension of cryopreserved hemopoietic, lymphoid and auxiliary cells from cord (umbilical) blood in an autologous plasm, rich with biologically active substances: monokines, interleukines, interferons, enzymes, hormones, microelements, aminoacids and vitamins. Preparations "Cryocell-Hemocord" has been widely applied when treating pathological states of different etiology (primary and secondary immunodeficiencies, immuno- and hemodepressions, accompanying different chronic pathological states of neuroendocrine pathology, in cosmetology, ophthalmology, for preventing respiratory, viral, including influenza, diseases and treating other viral infections, as well as for diabetic angiopathies treatment).
There have been developed the efficient technologies for cryopreservation of industrial strains of microorganisms, viruses, tissue culture cells, hybridomas, higher fungi mycelium etc.
The results of scientific activity of the department are presented in 5 manuscripts, 350 scientific articles, 25 author's certificates for invention. Department is in a tight scientific relationship with scientists all over the world.