Thermophysical properties of cryoprotectants. VII. Electrical conductivity of some cryoprotectants, their aqueous solutions and mixtures


  • Aleksandr F. Todrin Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine
  • Elena V. Timofeyeva Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine



cryoprotectant, specific electrical conductivity, empirical polynomial equations


The paper classifies the reference data on specific electrical conductivity of water, pure cryoprotectants, their aqueous solutions and mixtures. We obtained empirical polynomial equations for calculating the specific electrical conductivity of water and pure cryoprotectants depending on temperature. Empirical polynomial equations were obtained for aqueous solutions and mixtures of cryoprotectants depending on the temperature and constant concentrations or the one and constant temperature.

Probl Cryobiol Cryomed 2015; 25(1): 33-44.

Author Biographies

Aleksandr F. Todrin, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine

Department of Low Temperature Preservation

Elena V. Timofeyeva, Institute for Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov, Ukraine

Department of Low Temperature Preservation


Ajaya B., Kumar S.S. Effects of concentration and relative permittivity on the transport properties of sodium chloride in pure water and ethanol-water mixed solvent media. Res J Chem Sci 2011; 1(6): 48–52.

Akhter M.S., Alawi S.M. Aggregation of ionic surfactants in formamide. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem Eng Aspects 2000;173(1–3): 95–100. CrossRef

Akrawi B.A., Ali A.M.J., Hani A.A.M. Study of albumin conductivity in water and its reactions with transition metal ions. Natl J Chem (Iraq) 2010; 40: 752–769.

Akrawi B.A., Khalil S.M., Dawod A.M. The electrical conductivity of potasium halides in methanol at different temperatures. Raf J Sci 2006; 17(4): 68–75.

Alawi S.M. Thermodynamics studies of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in N, N-dimethyl acetamide-water mixtures. Orient J Chem 2010; 26(4): 1235–1240.

Alshami A.S. Dielectric properties of biological materials: a physical-chemical approach [dissertation]. Washington; 2007.

Bhattarai A., Sapkota D., Subedi N.T. et al. Conductance of sodium nitrate in methanol-water mixtures at different tempe-ratures. Nepal J Sci and Tech 2011; 12: 187–192.

Bruttel P.A. Conductometry – conductivity measurement. Herisau: Metrohm Ltd; 2004.

Caprita R., A. Caprita A. Monitoring the milk acidification by the conductometric method // Universitatea de Stiinte Agricole si Medicina Veterinara Iasi Lucrari Stiintifice. Vol. 52, Seria Zootehnie: 635–638. Available from: URL: Catpriata.pdf [cited 9.05.2014].

Characteristics of deionised water. Available from: URL: [cited 19.05.2014].

CHEM 334L – Conductance of solutions – estimating Ka for a weak acid. Available from: URL: %20Conductivity_2005.pdf] [cited 29.05.2014].

Conductivity of water ont saturation line. Available from: URL:] (cited 11.06.2014).

Conductivity ordering guide. [Electronic document // web-site conductivity%20 v%20concentration.pdf] (cited 17.04.2014).

Conductivity: theory and practice Available from: URL:] [cited 29.06.2014].

Conductometric titration. Available from: URL:] [cited 21.06.2014].

Conductometry. Metrohm. Application Bulletin 102/2 e. Available from: URL: get_dms_document&docid=692931] [cited 5.06.2014].

Contacting conductivity analyzers/inductive conductivity analyzers, general. Available from: URL:] [cited 5.06.2014].

CRC Handbook of chemistry and physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2005.

Crook J., King D., Weyh J. Electrical conductivity of electrolytes [Electronic document // web-site] [cited 12.06.2014].

Dean J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. New York: McGRAW-HILL, 1999.

Electrical conductivity of aqueous solutions electrolytes Available from: URL: diverdi/all_courses/CRC%20reference%20data/electrical% 20conductivity%20of%20aqueous%20solutions.pdf] [cited 13.04.2014].

Engineering and operating guide for DOWFROST and DOWFROST HD inhibited propylene glycol-based heat transfer fluids electrolytes Available from: URL:] [cited 14.04.2014].

Ermakov V.I., Fenin S.A. Using a method of calculus of end differences for description of dependency 'conduction- concentration' electrolytes an solutions // Electron. Sci. J. "Investigated in Russia" 2005: 482-485. Available from: URL:] [cited 23.02.2014].

Foster K.R., Bell R.T.,III, Whittington R., Denysyk B. Effect of DMSO on the dielectric properties of canine kidney tissue. Cryobiology 1976; 13(5): 581–585. CrossRef

Gaiduk V.I., TseitlinB.M., Vij J.K. Orientational/translational relaxation in aqueous electrolyte solutions : a molecular model for microwave/far-infrared ranges. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2001; 3(4): 523–534. CrossRef

Galstyan A. S., Gabrielyan L. S., Markaryan Sh. A. A dielectric relaxation of urea/ dimethylsulfoxide mixtures. Chem J Armenia 2003; 56(3): 27–33.

General tests, processes and apparatus. Available from: URL: edition/General%20Tests,%20Processes%20and%20 Apparatus.pdf] (cited 11.04.2014).

Hasted J.B., Ritson D.M., Collie C.H. Dielectric properties of aqueous ionic solutions. Parts I and II. J Chem Phys 1948; 16(1): 1–21. CrossRef

Jarusuwannapoom T., Hongrojjanawiwat W., Jitjaicham S. et al. Effect of solvents on electro-spinnability of polysterene solutions and morphological appearance of resulting electrospun polysterene fibers. Eur Polym J 2005; 41(3): 409–421. CrossRef

Jonsson P. Road status sensors: A comparison of active and passive sensors. Available from: URL:] (cited 14.04.2014).

Karapetyan Yu.A., Eychis V. Physical -chemical properties of electrolyte non-aqueous solutions. Moscow: Khimia; 1989. PubMed

Kim E.-H., Chow W.S., Horton P. et al. Entropy-assisted stacking of thylakoid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005; 1708(2): 187–195. CrossRef PubMed

Lee F.-M., Lahti L.E., Stoops C.E. Solution properties of urea-alcohol-water mixtures. J Chem Eng Data 1976; 21(1): 36–40. CrossRef

Mantynen M. Temperature correction coefficients of electrical conductivity and of density measurements for saline groundwater sensors. Available from: URL:] (cited 12.05.2014).

Manual of electrochemical analysis. Part 3. Electric conductivity. Available from: URL: Manual_Part_3.pdf] [cited 14.06.2014].

Marcus Y. The properties of solvent. New York: Jon Wiley & Sons; 1999.

Mason W.A., Shutt W.J. The dielectric capacity of electrolytes in mixed solvents: ion association in solutions of magnesium sulphate. Proc R Soc Lond A 1940; 175(961): 234–253. CrossRef

Maximova I.N., Pak Ch.S., Pravdin N.N. et al. Properties of electrolytes. Moscow: Metallurgia; 1987.

McCleskey R.B. Electrical conductivity of electrolytes found in natural waters from (5 to 90)°C. J Chem Eng Data 2011; 56(2): 317–327. CrossRef

MEGlobal. Ethylene. Available from: URL:] (cited 24.05.2014).

Nagarajan R., Wang C.-C. Theory of surfactant aggregation in water/ethylene glycol mixed solvents. Langmuir 2000; 16(12): 5242–5251. CrossRef

Nikolsky B.P., editor. Handbook of chemistry. Vol.1. Moscow-Leningrad: Khimia; 1966.

Nikolsky B.P., editor. Handbook of chemistry. Chemical equilibrium and kinetics. Properties of solutions. Electrode processes. Vol.3. Moscow-Leningrad: Khimia; 1965.

Otto M. Analytische chemie. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2000.

Owen B.B., Zelde H. The conductance of potassium chloride, potassium bromide and potassium iodide in aqueous solutions from 5 to 550. J Chem Phys 1950; 18(8): 1083–1085. CrossRef

Pelagic meg/water umbilical flushing and storage fluids. Available from: URL:] (cited 2.06.2014).

Peyman A., Holden S., Gabriel C. Dielectric properties of tissues at microwave frequencies Available from: URL: Report.pdf] (cited 22.02.2014).

Phillips S.L., Igbene A., Fair J.A. et al. A technical databook for geothermal energy utilization. Berkeley: University of California; 1981. CrossRef

Physical properties of glycerine and its solutions. ACI Science. American Cleaning Institute. Available from: URL: _and_its-solutions.pdf] (cited 21.02.2014).

Ravdel A.A., Ponomareva A.M., editors. Quick reference of physical-chemical quantities. Leningrad: Khimia; 1983.

Report on the research project 'Development of low-waste technology of membrane-sorption purification and concentration of L-amino acids for food industry and medicine' (final) SRD-1027 (state registration N 01.200.116727) Available from: URL:] (cited 2.04.2014).

Robinson R.A., Stokes R.H. Electrolyte solutions. London: Butterworths Scientific Publications; 1959.

Sabirov R.Z., Krasilnikov O.V., Ternovsky V.I. et al. Relation between ionic channel conductance and conductivity of media containing different nonelectrolytes. A novel method of pore size determination. Gen Physiol Biophys 1993; 12(2): 95–111. PubMed

Saleh J.M., Khalil M., Hokmat N.A. Investigation of some physical properties of glycerol-water mixtures at 298.15 K. J Iraqi Chem Soc 1986; 11(1): 89–104.

Selifonova E.I. Electrophoretic separation and test-determination L-a-amino acids in water and organized media [dissertation]. Saratov; 2011.

Sengwa R.J., Choudhary S., Khatri V. Studies on hydrogen-bond interactions in ternary mixtures of polar solvents by dielectric constant measurements. Int J Thermophys 2011; 32(10): 2050–2061. CrossRef

Sengwa R.J., Khatri V., Sankhla S. Structure and hydrogen bonding in binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with some dipolar aprotic and protic solvents by dielectric characte-rization. Ind J Chem 2009; 48A(4): 512–519.

Shigimaga V.A., Megel Yu.E. Method for determining the conductivity of oocytes and embryos in various conditions of dielectric medium. Vestnik NTU 'KhPI' 'New solutions in modern technology.' Kharkov: NTU 'KhPI'; 2011; (9): 140–144.

Simanova S.A. editor. New handbook of chemist and technologist. Chemical equilibrium. Properties of solutions. St. Petersburg: ANO NPO "Professional"; 2004.

Snyder K.A., Fenga X., Keen B.D. et al. Estimating the electrical conductivity of cement paste pore solutions from OR–, K+ and Na+ concentrations. Cement Concr Res 2003; 33(6): 793– 798. CrossRef

Solazzo S.A., Liu Z., Lobo S.M. et al. Radiofrequency ablation: importance of background tissue electrical conductivity – an agar phantom and computer modeling study. Radiology 2005; 236(2): 495–502. CrossRef PubMed

Tanasjuk D.A., Magomedbekov E.P., Byakov V.M. et al. The role of electrolyte structure on gamma-radiation effect and it's influence at electroconductivity and pH of solutions // Electron. Sci. J. "Investigated in Russia" 2011. – P.798–814. Available from: URL: [cited 9.06.2014].

Triethylene glycol Available from: URL: http://msdssearch.dow. com/PublishedLiteratureDOWCOM/dh_004d/0901b8038004d042.pdf [cited 11.03.2014].

Woisetschlager J., Wexler A.D., Holler G. et al. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids. Exp Fluids 2012; 52(1): 193–205. CrossRef

Xu Y., Xie H., Guo J. Conductivity of NaCl solution at 0.4–5.0 GPa and 25-5000C. Sci China Earth Sci 1997; 40(4): 398–402. CrossRef

Yoon G. Dielectric properties of glucose in bulk aqueous solutions: Influence of electrode polarization and modeling. Biosens Bioelectron 2011; 26(5): 2347–2353. CrossRef PubMed




How to Cite

Todrin, A. F., & Timofeyeva, E. V. (2015). Thermophysical properties of cryoprotectants. VII. Electrical conductivity of some cryoprotectants, their aqueous solutions and mixtures. Problems of Cryobiology and Cryomedicine, 25(1), 33–44.



Theoretical and Experimental Cryobiology